The proportionof exports stemming from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) was 56.5 percent in 2014, according to data released yesterday by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat). SMEs also accounted for 37.8 percent of imports. According to TurkStat's External Trade Statistics by Enterprise Characteristics report, 62,987 enterprises were involved in exports and 66,585 in imports in 2014. In terms of exports, the proportion of micro-sized enterprises was 1.4 percent, while the proportion of small enterprises was 20.7 percent and medium-sized enterprises was 18.4 percent. Large-scale enterprises accounted for 43.5 percent of exports last year.
Regarding imports, the rate for micro enterprises was 6.2 percent, while small enterprises, medium-sized enterprises and large-scale enterprises were 13.2 percent, 18.4 percent and 62.2 percent, respectively.
The size of the enterprises is distinguished by their employee numbers: Companies with one to nine employees are labeled as micro, 10-49 are small, 50-249 are medium-sized and those that have more than 250 employees are large-scale enterprises.
In 2014, industry sector enterprises accounted for 56.9 percent of exports and 51.5 percent of imports, the report said, while trade sector enterprises accounted for 38.5 percent and 35.1 percent of exports and imports, respectively.
In addition, the report indicated that large-scale enterprises accounted for 65.2 percent of industry sector exports and 75.5 percent of the sector's imports, while SMEs had 89 percent of trade sector exports and 64 percent of imports.
In 2014, the European Union accounted for the bulk of industrial enterprises' exports with 48.3 percent, which was followed by Middle Eastern countries with 19.5 percent. Specifically, 63.2 percent of exports to the EU were in the industry sector and 35.3 percent of exports to the EU were in the trade sector.
Enterprises in the top 100 accounted for 42.1 percent of exports, while those in the top 50 accounted for 48.5 percent of imports in 2014. The top five enterprises accounted for 15.3 percent of exports and 24.5 percent of imports. Meanwhile, the report said for exports, the top five enterprises had a 15.9 percent share of the industry sector and an 11.9 percent share of the trade sector, while the top five enterprises had a 19.5 percent share of the industry sector and a 15.9 percent share of the trade sector for imports.