Erdoğan had left by helicopter from the city of Kastamonu by the time of the attack, which targeted a police vehicle providing an escort for an AK Party campaign bus.
Campaigning has begun for a parliamentary election on June 12 that is expected to result in Erdoğan winning a third consecutive term.
Television pictures showed Erdoğan subsequently arriving at another election rally in the northern province of Amasya, where he was greeted by thousands of AK supporters waving party flags.
He blamed separatist militants for the attack, casting suspicion on the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) and its affiliates.
"Those dark minds, these terrorists, these separatists are only able to do this, those who understand there is nothing they can do through the ballot box," Erdoğan said in Amasya.
"Our people will never allow these terrorists, these bandits to divide them," he said, addressing the rally in full view but flanked by two bodyguards.
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