Four decades after the United States established diplomatic ties with Communist China, the relationship between the two is at a turning point.
Tensions have reached new heights on what has always been a rocky road, as the ambitions of a rising superpower increasingly clash with those of the established one. China ordered the closing of the U.S. Consulate in the southwestern city of Chengdu on Friday, in rapid retaliation for the closing of its consulate in Houston.
Two weeks ago, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi asked aloud if relations could stay on track. On Thursday, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo delivered an answer: The time has come to change course.
“The old paradigm of blind engagement with China simply won’t get it done," he said in a speech at the Richard Nixon Presidential Library in southern California. ”We must not continue it. We must not return to it.”
It was Nixon's visit to China in 1972, the first by an American president since the Communists took power in 1949, that upended a Cold War paradigm and paved the way for the normalization of relations in 1979.
The United States had been a close ally of then-Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek in World War II and for three decades recognized Taiwan as the government of China after Chiang fled there when he lost the battle for control of the mainland to the Communists in 1949.
Relations between Washington and the Communist government in Beijing began to thaw in the 1970s, as China's ties with the Soviet Union deteriorated and leader Mao Zedong sought a counterweight to its more powerful neighbor.
A new leader, Deng Xiaoping, visited the U.S. in 1979 after the establishment of diplomatic ties, smiling for photographers as he tried on a cowboy hat outside Houston. The consulate that is being shut opened later the same year. It was China's first in the United States.
Setting aside political differences, the U.S. and China promoted economic, social and cultural links that were briefly interrupted a decade later by China's military crackdown on the 1989 pro-democracy demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square.
Relations grew exponentially in the following years, with heavy investment by U.S. businesses in China and an accompanying Chinese trade surplus that has reached $350 billion annually.
As China has grown into the world's second-largest economy, behind only the U.S., it is increasingly viewed as a competitor, both economically and militarily, and a potential challenger to the Western-led democratic model that has dominated the post-World War II era.
American and Chinese battleships are constantly jockeying for position in the South China Sea, a vital shipping lane in the Asia-Pacific region. The U.S. is leaning on its allies to exclude Chinese telecom leader Huawei from their mobile networks, raising the specter of cybersecurity. On human rights, the U.S. is imposing sanctions over Chinese policies in Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang,
Pompeo's speech was only the latest in a series of sharp criticisms aimed at China by Cabinet-level U.S. officials, including Defense Secretary Mark Esper and Attorney General Bill Barr.
Although Trump earlier played up what he called a warm relationship with Chinese leader Xi Jinping, communication between the sides has fallen to new lows.
“The kind of engagement we have been pursuing has not brought the kind of change in China that President Nixon hoped to induce,” Pompeo said. “The truth is that our policies – and those of other free nations – resurrected China’s failing economy, only to see Beijing bite the international hands that fed it.”
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