Belgians must stay at home from midday on Wednesday until at least April 5 to help stop the further spread of coronavirus, Prime Minister Sophie Wilmes said on Tuesday.
The only residents allowed out will be those going for medical attention, solo exercise or work in businesses deemed essential, such as food markets and pharmacies, she said.
As of Tuesday, the virus, known as COVID-19, had killed more than 3,400 people in Europe compared to 3,226 in China, where the virus first appeared.
With new infections dwindling in Asia, Europe has become the hotbed for the pandemic that has infected more than 190,000 people worldwide and killed nearly 8,000. More than 80,000 people with the virus have already recovered.
France, Italy, Spain and now Belgium have imposed lockdowns that restrict the movement of people, part of a wide range of sweeping measures designed to contain the spread of COVID-19 across Europe.